With ever increasing consumer demand for sophisticated communications and entertainment services and the growth of business globalization and networking, Network Bandwidth requirements have increased at an exponential rate and MSO’s are forced to look for ways to quickly and cost-efficiently migrate to an architecture that will support the data capacities of today and tomorrow and improve fiber optic transmission networks.
The growth of high-speed internet subscribers, channel offerings and streaming video services are driving the demand for more bandwidth and speeding up the migration from HFC to Fiber-Deep networks, where the fiber-to-coax conversion point moves closer to the subscriber. That initiative drives the increased demand for fiber patch panel, racks and cables.
The current build-out of HFC infrastructure includes distribution plants with several RF amplifiers in cascade to boost signals in the feeder and drop networks. The Fiber-Deep solutions are pushing fiber nodes deep into networks so that few or no amplifiers are needed. These optical nodes and no amplifier (Node Plus Zero Amplifiers) topologies leave only the passive tap and drop network as coax distribution media.
Node Plus Zero raises the proportion of available bandwidth on a per-household basis, cuts plant power consumption, reduces maintenance costs and truck rolls, and provides Cable Operators the opportunity to Go Green in their operations. It is also a stepping-stone to an RFoG, Remote PHY, Hybrid PON/RF-PON, EPON/GPON migration of the MSO’s networks.
It is estimated that 30 percent of North Americans live in multiple dwelling units, which includes apartment complexes, condo associations, townhouses, mobile home parks, retirement homes, dormitories, etc. The Cable Operator’s share of the MDU market for telecommunication services may be under increased threat by Telephone Companies, Direct Broadcast Satellite, and OTT providers.
Insertion of local video content into the community’s channel lineup is an attractive solution that helps property owners attract and retain residents.
- HFC Local Video Insertion
In HFC system the local insertion is done at the edge right after the HFC node. If local video program is being inserted into an existing QAM, an RF notch filer must be deployed in conjunction with VividEdge encoder, as shown in fig.1
When the program is being inserted into a vacant QAM or into a dedicated local insertion Qam notched out in the hub/headend, the output of the VividEdge encoder can be combined with the output of the HFC node, as shown in fig2.
- Fiber Deep Node+0
Fiber Deep often referred to as Node + O is an HFC architecture that extends the fiber deeper into the network, typically within a few hundred feet of the subscribers’ homes, the optical-to- electrical conversion of downstream signals occurs much closer to subscribers’ homes, which eliminates/reduces the requirement of RF amplifiers.
Local insertion for a small service group served by a single node can be done in the same manner as HFC system shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2.
For larger properties that are being serviced by multiple nodes, insertion can be done at the output on each node via multiple VividEdge mpeg2 video encoder or by a single unit at the fiber demarcation point in the property, by inserting a new qam on an empty wavelength, as shown in Fig.3.
Some of the other encoders we use include, a peg encoder. This encoder is cost effective and moves the system to an all-digital solution.
RF over glass (RFoG) is an economical migration to FTTh while still utilizing the same Headend equipment and analog optics used for HFC delivery, and the services are provisioned the same as delivery over traditional HFC network. It’s a perfect solution for fiber planned communities that require fiber to the home. The local video insertion is done on the input of the node/vhub that feeds the customer ONU devices. Insertion is shown in Fig.4.
- PON Insertion
A PON architecture consists of a single feeder fiber that is passively split serving typically 32 homes.
Current deployment of the MSO’s feature two types of PON systems: hybrid PON and EPON/GPON.
Hybrid PON uses RFoG or coax QAM for video delivery. For the first, the local video insertion is done the same as standard RFoG systems, as shown on Fig.4.
In the case of Hybrid PON with linear QAM video services. The PON router sends the PON data to each subscriber as MOCA service and video services are delivered over coax to customer terminals (TV or STB). In that application the video insertion is performed at the input of the PON router via standard VividEdge pon encoder as shown in Fig.5
For EPON/GPON the insertion can be done over IP via GigE port on the router, shown in Fig.6.
- Remote PHY insertion.
Operators are looking to implement distributed digital fiber coax (DFC) architectures in addition to Fiber-Deep. DFC preserves both the existing infrastructure investment and leaves room for future innovation by extending the digital Headend domain out to the fiber optic node, thus moving toward a distributed DFC network. Then local lineups will be generated at the node via remote QAMs. Similar to Node+0 architecture the local insertion can be implemented both ways: as QAM insertion on the output of the Remote PHY Node or via IP or MPEG DASH feeding into the MSO’s video IP network.
1 Insertion into the output of a single node via RF QAM, for multi node insertion use analog laser output option unit
SD MPEG2 Encoder, 1-4 CVBS Inputs, RF QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output
VL4500Q – Single/Multi SD/HD Encoder, SDI input, RF QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output
SD MPEG2 Encoder, 1-4 CVBS Inputs, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output
Single/Multi SD/HD Encoder, SDI input, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output
SD MPEG2 Encoder, 1-4 CVBS Inputs, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output
Single/Multi SGD/HD Encoder, SDI input, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output
SD MPEG2 Encoder, 1-4 CVBS Inputs, RF QAM, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output
Single/Multi SGD/HD Encoder, SDI input, RF QAM, Analog DWDM Laser QAM Output, Digital Laser MPEG TS GigE Output